100 years ago on April 6th, the US Congress voted to go to war with Germany and thereby entered World War I. 17 million people died in WWI. Less publicized is the role animals played in the war effort.
Horses were popular on both sides of the front. Several million horses died in WWI. They were so important to the war effort on both sides, they became military targets.
Christopher Kolakowski is the director of the MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk, Virginia. He says that the horses were needed for movement. Taking care of the horses was like maintaining your car today.
Horses and mules were shipped to Europe from Newport News, Virginia, by the hundreds of thousands. It was the largest departure point for horses and mules during the war. Today the area is full of condos, offices and some shipyards.
Kolakowski says that Newport News was ideally located near the harbor and rail lines. Also, the harbor is very large and not as crowded as New York.
The US sold animals to the UK and other allies in Europe even before WWI. The US economy was in need of money, so there was no shortage of companies willing to meet the large supply of animals requested by our allies.
During WWI, animals tended to be the best option for transporting people and supplies, according to Lynn Rainville, a research professor of humanities at Sweet Briar College who wrote a book about the role Virginia played in WWI. Four-legged animals were able to maneuver over rough roads better than tanks, cars and trucks.
So valuable were horses and mules to the Allies that the Germans plotted to infect them as they waited at Newport News to be shipped to Europe.
Anton Dilger, an American-born German sympathizer who had studied science and medicine in Germany, developed a plot to infect the mules with anthrax and a disease called glanders.
The two diseases are so dangerous that, had the mules been infected, most or all of them would have been dead before they reached Europe.